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Molecular analysis of Cercospora beticola isolates for strobilurin resistance from the Central High Plains, USA

Obuya, J. O., Franc, G. D.
European journal of plant pathology 2016 v.146 no.4 pp. 817-827
Cercospora beticola, amino acids, beet sugar, crop production, cytochrome b, foliar diseases, fungicides, genes, heritability, in vitro digestion, leaf spot, nucleotide sequences, polymerase chain reaction, rapid methods, restriction endonucleases, restriction fragment length polymorphism, single nucleotide polymorphism, Colorado, Montana, Nebraska, Wyoming
Cercospora leaf spot (CLS), caused by Cercospora beticola, is the most destructive foliar disease and is a problem in sugar beet production areas, such as Central High Plains (states of Colorado, Montana, Nebraska and Wyoming) in the United States. The disease can be controlled by strobilurin fungicides, referred to as quinone outside inhibitors (QoIs), with a single target site on C. beticola. Strobilurin resistance has been reported in beet production areas from the United States, including the Central High Plains. Although strobilurin resistance is quantitatively inherited, it is considered that it has low to medium heritability in the population. Effective diagnostic tools are required for the rapid detection of C. beticola strobilurin resistance. The study obtained a partial nucleotide sequence of the C. beticola cytochrome b gene and determined to a putative protein with ~386 amino acid residues. Eighty C. beticola isolates (2004–2011) from the Central High Plains were analyzed for mutations. We found a single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) site which led to G143A mutation and was present in 2 C. beticola QoI-resistant isolates. Partial sequences obtained from 82 C. beticola QoI-sensitive isolates showed identical cytochrome b gene. We developed a PCR-RFLP assay that involved an in vitro digestion using Fnu4HI restriction enzyme for the rapid molecular detection of G143A mutation in the C. beticola population. Results indicated the PCR-RFLP assay was reliable, sensitive, and can be used for the rapid detection of C. beticola strobilurin resistance.