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Mineral nutrient interaction: Improving bioavailability of calcium and iron
- Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt
- Food science and biotechnology 2016 v.25 no.5 pp. 1233-1241
- absorption, anemia, bioavailability, calcium, food intake, fractionation, iron, malnutrition, osteoporosis, peptides, risk, salts
- Insufficient uptake of essential metals leads to serious malnutrition, which is a worldwide problem. Low bioavailability of iron and calcium may lead to anemia and osteoporosis, respectively, even in individuals with a high dietary intake. For iron, fractionation of meat proteins was studied in order to increase iron bioavailability from other meal components, and uptake of iron was found to increase with minimal risk of increasing oxidative damage. Calcium binding to peptides was found to prevent formation of insoluble calcium salts otherwise hampering absorption particularly in combination with calcium hydroxycarboxylates, entailing spontaneous supersaturation. Based on a review of results from different strategies available for increasing bioavailability, safe iron fortification is suggested to be supported by calcium, with modulation of iron as a prooxidant.