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Effect of silver nanoparticles on the standard soil arthropod Folsomia candida (Collembola) and the eukaryote model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae
- Sillapawattana, Panwad, Gruhlke, Martin C. H., Schäffer, Andreas
- Environmental sciences Europe 2016 v.28 no.1 pp. 27
- Folsomia candida, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, anti-infective properties, ecotoxicology, eukaryotic cells, fluorescence, gene expression regulation, glutathione, glutathione transferase, heavy metals, ions, messenger RNA, mutants, nanosilver, oxidative stress, silver, silver nitrate, soil arthropods, toxicity, yeasts
- BACKGROUND: Because of their antimicrobial properties, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been widely used and have come into contact with the environment. In the present work, an effect of AgNPs on a standard soil organism, Folsomia candida, was studied (in comparison to silver nitrate) focusing on molecular and cellular alterations as ecotoxicological endpoints. RESULTS: At the molecular level, an up-regulation of metallothionein-containing protein (MTC) mRNA in AgNP-treated groups indicated toxic heavy metal stress effects caused by the release of silver ions from AgNPs, which is similar to animal groups treated with silver nitrate. Alteration of the steady-state level of glutathione S-transferase (GST) mRNA was detected in animal treated with AgNPs and AgNO₃. At the cellular level, the relation between GST activity and the size of the glutathione (GSH) was examined. Change of GST activity from different animal groups was not significant, whereas the GSH pool (reduced and oxidized forms) decreased with increasing concentration of AgNPs. In order to obtain direct evidence whether AgNPs cause oxidative stress, treated animals were incubated with the non-fluorescent probe, 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA). A fluorescence signal was observed in both AgNPs- and AgNO₃-treated groups pointing to the production of reactive species (RS). Since RS formation in F.candida is difficult to quantify, yeast strain BY4742 (wild-type) and mutants lacking of oxidative stress-related protective enzymes were exploited as a further eukaryote model organism. AgNPs and AgNO₃ were found to also affect growth of yeast and induced oxidative stress. CONCLUSIONS: An effect of AgNPs on Collembola and yeast strains is similar to the one from AgNO₃. However, AgNPs is less toxic due to the slow release of silver ions. In summary, the toxic effect of AgNPs on F. candida is caused by the combination of the release of silver ions from AgNPs and the formation of reactive species.