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A brief review on recent developments of electrochemical sensors in environmental application for PGMs Part A Toxic/hazardous substances & environmental engineering

Silwana, Bongiwe, Van Der Horst, Charlton, Iwuoha, Emmanuel, Somerset, Vernon
Journal of environmental science and health 2016 v.51 no.14 pp. 1233-1247
electrochemistry, electrodes, environmental monitoring, nanoparticles, platinum, pollutants, public health, quality of life, rapid methods, scientists
This study offers a brief review of the latest developments and applications of electrochemical sensors for the detection of Platinum Group Metals (PGMs) using electrochemical sensors. In particular, significant advances in electrochemical sensors made over the past decade and sensing methodologies associated with the introduction of nanostructures are highlighted. Amongst a variety of detection methods that have been developed for PGMs, nanoparticles offer the unrivaled merits of high sensitivity. Rapid detection of PGMs is a key step to promote improvement of the public health and individual quality of life. Conventional methods to detect PGMs rely on time-consuming and labor intensive procedures such as extraction, isolation, enrichment, counting, etc., prior to measurement. This results in laborious sample preparation and testing over several days. This study reviewed the state-of-the-art application of nanoparticles (NPs) in electrochemical analysis of environmental pollutants. This review is intended to provide environmental scientists and engineers an overview of current rapid detection methods, a close look at the nanoparticles based electrodes and identification of knowledge gaps and future research needs. We summarize electrodes that have been used in the past for detection of PGMs. We describe several examples of applications in environmental electrochemical sensors and performance in terms of sensitivity and selectivity for all the sensors utilized for PGMs detection. NPs have promising potential to increase competitiveness of electrochemical sensors in environmental monitoring, though this review has focused mainly on sensors used in the past decade for PGMs detection. This review therefore provides a synthesis of outstanding performances in recent advances in the nanosensor application for PGMs determination.