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Retention of Proanthocyanidin in Wine-like Solution Is Conferred by a Dynamic Interaction between Soluble and Insoluble Grape Cell Wall Components
- Bindon, Keren A., Li, Sijing, Kassara, Stella, Smith, Paul A.
- Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2016 v.64 no.44 pp. 8406-8419
- Vitis vinifera, adsorption, cell wall components, cell walls, depolymerization, enzymatic treatment, grapes, mesocarp, molecular weight, polygalacturonase, polysaccharides, proanthocyanidins, proteins, red wines, solubilization, winemaking
- For better understanding of the factors that impact proanthocyanidin (PA) adsorption by insoluble cell walls or interaction with soluble cell wall-derived components, application of a commercial polygalacturonase enzyme preparation was investigated to modify grape cell wall structure. Soluble and insoluble cell wall material was isolated from the skin and mesocarp components of Vitis vinifera Shiraz grapes. It was observed that significant depolymerization of the insoluble grape cell wall occurred following enzyme application to both grape cell wall fractions, with increased solubilization of rhamnogalacturonan-enriched, low molecular weight polysaccharides. However, in the case of grape mesocarp, the solubilization of protein from cell walls (in buffer) was significant and increased only slightly by the enzyme treatment. Enzyme treatment significantly reduced the adsorption of PA by insoluble cell walls, but this effect was observed only when material solubilized from grape cell walls had been removed. The loss of PA through interaction with the soluble cell wall fraction was observed to be greater for mesocarp than skin cell walls. Subsequent experiments on the soluble mesocarp cell wall fraction confirmed a role for protein in the precipitation of PA. This identified a potential mechanism by which extracted grape PA may be lost from wine during vinification, as a precipitate with solubilized grape mesocarp proteins. Although protein was a minor component in terms of total concentration, losses of PA via precipitation with proteins were in the order of 50% of available PA. PA-induced precipitation could proceed until all protein was removed from solution and may account for the very low levels of residual protein observed in red wines. The results point to a dynamic interaction of grape insoluble and soluble components in modulating PA retention in wine.