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Factors that alter the biochemical biomarkers of environmental contamination in Chironomus sancticaroli (Diptera, Chironomidae)

Rebechi-Baggio, Débora, Richardi, Vinicius S., Vicentini, Maiara, Guiloski, Izonete C., Assis, Helena C. Silva de, Navarro-Silva, Mário A.
Revista Brasileira de entomologia 2016 v.60 no.4 pp. 341-346
Chironomus, acetylcholinesterase, biomarkers, centrifugation, ecotoxicology, eggs, enzyme activity, freezing, homogenization, instars, larvae, metabolism, nervous system, pollutants, rearing, starvation, temperature, thermal stress, xenobiotics
Changes in physiology of the nervous system and metabolism can be detected through the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), alpha esterase (EST-α) and beta esterase (EST-β) in chironomids exposed to pollutants. However, to understand the real effect of xenobiotics on organisms, it is important to investigate how certain factors can interfere with enzyme activity. We investigated the effects of different temperatures, food stress and two steps of the enzymatic protocol on the activity of AChE, EST-α and EST-β in Chironomus sancticaroli. In experiment of thermal stress individuals from the egg stage to the fourth larval instar were exposed to different temperatures (20, 25 and 30°C). In food stress experiment, larvae were reared until IV instar in a standard setting (25°C and 0.9g weekly ration), but from fourth instar on they were divided into groups and offered different feeding regimes (24, 48 and 72h with/without food). In sample freezing experiment, a group of samples was processed immediately after homogenization and another after freezing for 30 days. To test the effect of centrifugation on samples, enzyme activity was quantified from centrifuged and non-centrifuged samples. The activity of each enzyme reached an optimum at a different temperature. The absence of food triggered different changes in enzyme activity depending on the period of starvation. Freezing and centrifugation of the samples significantly reduced the activity of three enzymes. Based on these results we conclude that the four factors studied had an influence on AChE, EST-α and EST-β and this influence should be considered in ecotoxicological approaches.