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Molecular survey of pyrethroid resistance mechanisms in Mexican field populations of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo, Guerrero, Felix D., Miller, Robert J., Rodriguez-Vivas, Roger Ivan, Tijerina, Mary, Dominguez-Garcia, Delia Ines, Hernandez-Ortiz, Ruben, Cornel, Anthony J., McAbee, Rory D., Alonso-Diaz, Miguel Angel
Parasitology Research 2009 v.105 no.4 pp. 1145
Boophilus microplus, Rhipicephalus, acaricide resistance, cross resistance, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, enzyme activity, esterases, flumethrin, mutation, polymerase chain reaction, pyrethrins, resistance mechanisms, sodium channels, surveys, ticks, Mexico
Susceptibility to synthetic pyrethroids (SP´s) and the role of two major resistance mechanisms were evaluated in Mexican Rhipicephalus microplus tick populations. Larval packet test (LPT), knock-down (kdr) PCR allele-specific assay (PASA) and esterase activity assays were conducted in tick populations for cypermethrin, flumethrin and deltamethrin. Esterase activity did not have a significant correlation with SP´s resistance. However a significant correlation (p < 0.01) was found between the presence of the sodium channel mutation, and resistance to SP´s as measured by PASA and LPT respectively. Just over half the populations (16/28) were cross-resistant to flumethrin, deltamethrin and cypermethrine, 21.4% of the samples (6/28) were susceptible to all of the three pyrethroids 10.7 of the samples (3/28) were resistant to flumethrin, 3.4 of the samples (1/28) were resistant to deltamethrin only and 7.1% (2/28) were resistant to flumethrin and deltamethrin. The presence of the kdr mutation correlates with resistance to the SP´s as a class. Target site insensitivity is the major mechanism of resistance to SP´s in Mexican R. microplus field strains, involving the presence of a sodium channel mutation, however, esterase-based, other mutations or combination of mechanisms can also occur.