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Effect of cadmium (Cd(II)), selenium (Se(IV)) and their mixtures on phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity in Lepidium sativum

Elguera, Julio Cesar Torres, Barrientos, Eunice Yañez, Wrobel, Kazimierz, Wrobel, Katarzyna
Acta physiologiae plantarum 2013 v.35 no.2 pp. 431-441
Lepidium sativum, antioxidant activity, cadmium, cell walls, gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, phenolic compounds, plant response, principal component analysis, selenium, sodium selenite
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cadmium [Cd(II) as cadmium chloride], selenium [Se(IV) as sodium selenite] and their mixtures on phenolic compounds (PCs) and antioxidant activity (AOx) in Lepidium sativum. The biomass fractions corresponding to free (F1), soluble glycoside-bound (F2) and cell wall ester-bound phenolics (F3) were obtained for each treatment and PCs were screened by gas chromatography (GC-FID); F1 and F2 fractions were also analyzed by liquid chromatography with UV and fluorimetric detection. The treated plants presented different profiles of PCs as compared to controls, specifically in F1 and F2 fractions; the plant response was element-, and concentration-dependent. The cultures challenged with Cd(II) up to 5 mg L⁻¹, presented higher AOx with respect to controls, and this increase was associated with glycoside-bound PCs, whereas for Se(IV) the increase of AOx was less marked and associated with free PCs. Under simultaneous exposure to Cd(II) + Se(IV) (0.5–2.0 mg L⁻¹ each), the AOx values were relatively constant and lower than those found in the presence of Se(IV) or Cd(II) alone, providing further evidence of the protective role of Se(IV) against stress imposed by Cd(II) in this plant species. The evaluation of AOx of individual PCs and the results of principal component analysis enabled to attain several relationships among exposure conditions, antioxidant activity, free- and glycoside-bound phenolic compounds.