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The human papillomavirus E7 oncoprotein as a regulator of transcription

Songock, William K., Kim, Seong-man, Bodily, Jason M.
Virus research 2017 v.231 pp. 56-75
DNA damage, Papillomaviridae, cell cycle, disease course, gene expression regulation, genes, humans, immune evasion, keratinocytes, microRNA, neoplasms, oncogene proteins, transcription (genetics), transcription factors, virus replication
High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) encode oncoproteins which manipulate gene expression patterns in the host keratinocytes to facilitate viral replication, regulate viral transcription, and promote immune evasion and persistence. In some cases, oncoprotein-induced changes in host cell behavior can cause progression to cancer, but a complete picture of the functions of the viral oncoproteins in the productive HPV life cycle remains elusive. E7 is the HPV-encoded factor most responsible for maintaining cell cycle competence in differentiating keratinocytes. Through interactions with dozens of host factors, E7 has an enormous impact on host gene expression patterns. In this review, we will examine the role of E7 specifically as a regulator of transcription. We will discuss mechanisms of regulation of cell cycle-related genes by E7 as well as genes involved in immune regulation, growth factor signaling, DNA damage responses, microRNAs, and others pathways. We will also discuss some unanswered questions about how transcriptional regulation by E7 impacts the biology of HPV in both benign and malignant conditions.