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Paeoniflorin inhibits high glucose-induced macrophage activation through TLR2-dependent signal pathways
- Shao, Yun-Xia, Xu, Xin-Xing, Li, Yuan-Yuan, Qi, Xiang-Ming, Wang, Kun, Wu, Yong-Gui, Meng, Xiao-ming
- Journal of ethnopharmacology 2016 v.193 pp. 377-386
- Paeonia lactiflora, Ranunculaceae, Toll-like receptor 2, animal models, cell viability, cytokines, diabetic nephropathy, glucose, inducible nitric oxide synthase, inflammation, interferon-beta, macrophage activation, macrophages, males, mice, patients, phenotype, signal transduction, traditional medicine
- Paeoniflorin(PF), extracted from the root peeled of Paeonia lactiflora Pall(Family: Ranunculaceae), has therapeutic potential in many animal models of inflammatory diseases.Although the anti-inflammatory efficacy of PF has been well illustrated in several animal models, whether it could attenuate diabetic nephropathy and detailed mechanisms are still obscure. Till now, accumulating evidence has proposed the pivotal role of toll-like receptors (TLRs) in renal inflammation in diabetic patients. In this setting, the current study aimed to investigate the effects and underlying mechanism of PF on high glucose-induced activation of toll like-receptor 2 (TLR2) signaling in macrophages.Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) were isolated from male Tlr2ᵗᵐ¹ᵏⁱʳ (TLR2-/-) mice and wild-type littermates (C57BL/6JWT). The level of TLR2 and activation of downstream signaling were evaluated in response to 30mmol/L high glucose (HG)-containing medium. Macrophages behaviors, which include cell viability, migration and inflammatory cytokines production, were also determined.PF suppressed HG-induced production of TLR2, activation of downstream signaling and synthesis of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). PF could further inhibit MyD88-dependent pathway in HG-induced models in which TLR2 was knocked out. Moreover, deletion of TLR2 inhibited the HG-induced activation of MyD88-dependent pathway, but not TIR domain containing adapter inducing interferon-β (Trif) signal pathway in BMDMs. As HG stimulation polarizes macrophages into M1 phenotype, treatment of PF or knockout of TLR2 significantly reduces M1 markers on the membrane of macrophages. Additionally, levels of inflammatory cytokines and iNOS were remarkably reduced in response to PF or TLR2 deficiency.Collectively, these data demonstrated that HG activated macrophages primarily through TLR2-dependent mechanisms which aggravated the severity of renal inflammation and eventually contributed to DN. Additionally, PF might be applied as a potential therapeutic agent in the battle against progressive DN.