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Enhanced dechlorination of 2,4-dichlorophenol by recoverable Ni/Fe–Fe3O4 nanocomposites

Xu, Cancan, Liu, Rui, Chen, Lvjun, Tang, Jialu
Journal of environmental sciences (China) 2016 v.48 pp. 92-101
2,4-dichlorophenol, 2-chlorophenol, catalysts, chlorides, dechlorination, intermediate product, ions, iron, magnetic fields, nanocomposites, nanoparticles, nickel, nitrates, pH, phenol, pollution, remediation, sulfates, temperature
Ni/Fe-Fe3O4 nanocomposites were synthesized for dechlorination of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP). The effects of the Ni content in Ni/Fe-Fe3O4 nanocomposites, solution pH, and common dissolved ions on the dechlorination efficiency were investigated, in addition to the reusability of the nanocomposites. The results showed that increasing content of Ni in Ni/Fe–Fe3O4 nanocomposites, from 1 to 5wt.%, greatly increased the dechlorination efficiency; the Ni/Fe–Fe3O4 nanocomposites had much higher dechlorination efficiency than bare Ni/Fe nanoparticles. Ni content of 5wt.% and initial pH below 6.0 was found to be the optimal conditions for the catalytic dechlorination of 2,4-DCP. Both 2,4-DCP and the intermediate product 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) were completely removed, and the concentration of the final product phenol was close to the theoretical phenol production from complete dechlorination of 20mg/L of 2,4-DCP, after 3hr reaction at initial pH value of 6.0, 3g/L Ni/Fe-Fe3O4, 5wt.% Ni content in the composite, and temperature of 22°C. 2,4-DCP dechlorination was enhanced by Cl⁻ and inhibited by NO3⁻ and SO4²⁻. The nanocomposites were easily separated from the solution by an applied magnetic field. When the catalyst was reused, the removal efficiency of 2,4-DCP was almost 100% for the first seven uses, and gradually decreased to 75% in cycles 8–10. Therefore, the Ni/Fe–Fe3O4 nanocomposites can be considered as a potentially effective tool for remediation of pollution by 2,4-DCP.