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A- type procyanidins from litchi pericarp ameliorate hyperglycaemia by regulating hepatic and muscle glucose metabolism in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice fed with high fat diet

Li, Xiaopeng, Sui, Yong, Li, Shuyi, Xie, Bijun, Sun, Zhida
Journal of functional foods 2016 v.27 pp. 711-722
AMP-activated protein kinase, animal disease models, diabetes, gene expression regulation, genes, glucokinase, gluconeogenesis, glucose, glucose transporters, glucose-6-phosphatase, glycemic effect, glycolysis, high fat diet, homeostasis, hyperglycemia, insulin receptors, liver, mice, muscles, pericarp, phosphofructokinases, procyanidins, pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide), pyruvate kinase, skeletal muscle, streptozotocin
A-type procyanidins is rich in litchi pericarp. This study evaluated the prevention and anti-diabetic effect of A-type oligomeric procyanidins (A-OPC). The results showed A-OPC was more effective than B-type oligomeric procyanidins (B-OPC) of lotus seedpod. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was activated in liver and skeletal muscle. The protein levels of glucokinase (GK), glucose transporter type 2 (GLUT2, in liver), glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4, in skeletal muscle) and insulin receptor α (INSR) improved significantly with treatment of A-OPC or B-OPC (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the glycolytic key gene expressions of phosphofructokinase (PFK), pyruvate kinase (PK) in liver and skeletal muscle and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) in skeletal muscle were notably up-regulated, while gene expressions, rate-limiting enzymes of gluconeogenesis, of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase) were down-regulated. Both A-OPC and B-OPC improved glucose homeostasis by inhibiting the glucose production in liver, regulating the expression of proteins involved in glucose transport system and increasing glycolysis.