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Efficiency of Rumex dentatus L. Leaves Extract for Enhancing Phytoremediation of Plantago major L. in Soil Contaminated by Carbosulfan
- Romeh, Ahmed Ali
- Soil & sediment contamination 2016 v.25 no.8 pp. 941-956
- Plantago major, Rumex dentatus, carbofuran, carbosulfan, leaf extracts, leaves, phytoremediation, polluted soils, roots, water pollution
- Carbosulfan and carbofuran induce water pollution and health issues. Such issues may be solved by phytoremediation. Here we tested the potential of adding Rumex dentatus L. leaves extract to Plantago major L. for enhancing phytoremediation of carbosulfan-contaminated soil. The phytoremediation efficiency of P. major L. amended with R. dentatus L. leaves extract was significantly greater than that of P. major only and R. dentatus with respect to the removal of carbosulfan from contaminated soil. The contribution of R. dentatus leaves extract to the degradation of carbosulfan in the soil were 20.95%, 18.85%, 5.2% and 1.85% after 2, 4, 8 and 16 days of treatments, respectively. The presence of P. major amended with R. dentatus leaves extract showed significant effect on uptake of carbosulfan into roots at 2 and 4 days, the uptake ratio was about 2.39 and 1.31 times higher compared to P. major alone, respectively. Carbofuran appeared in the P. major roots amended with R. dentatus leaves extract within 2 days of treatment (5.49 mg/kg) and reached the maximum over 8 days (10.19 mg/kg), while carbofuran appeared in the P. major over 4 days of treatment (4.09 mg/kg) and reached the maximum (6.92 mg/kg) over 8 days of exposure. Carbosulfan taken up into P. major leaves reached 4.36 mg/kg over 4 days, while it reached 2.75 mg/kg in P. major leaves amended with R. dentatus leaves extract over the same time. Carbofuran translocated into the P. major leaves amended with R. dentatus leaves extract and reached the maximum over 16 days of exposure (10.43 mg/kg), followed by P. major (9.47 mg/kg) and R. dentatus leaves (9.5 mg/kg), respectively. This study indicates that R. dentatus leaves extract can improve the efficiency of phytoremediation of carbosulfan.