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Rice Koji Extract Enhances Lipid Metabolism through Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha (PPARα) Activation in Mouse Liver
- Takahashi, Haruya, Chi, Hsin-Yi, Mohri, Shinsuke, Kamakari, Kosuke, Nakata, Keiji, Ichijo, Noriyoshi, Nakata, Rieko, Inoue, Hiroyasu, Goto, Tsuyoshi, Kawada, Teruo
- Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2016 v.64 no.46 pp. 8848-8856
- Aspergillus oryzae, foods, gene expression, genes, hepatocytes, hyperlipidemia, koji, linolenic acid, lipid metabolism, liquid chromatography, liver, mass spectrometry, messenger RNA, mice, oleic acid, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, rice
- Koji is made from grains fermented with Aspergillus oryzae and is essential for the production of many traditional Japanese foods. Many previous studies have shown that koji contributes to the improvement of dyslipidemia. However, little is known regarding the underlying mechanism of this effect. Furthermore, the compound contributing to the activation of lipid metabolism is unknown. We demonstrated that rice koji extract (RKE) induces the mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) target genes, which promotes lipid metabolism in murine hepatocytes. This effect was not observed in PPARα-KO hepatocytes. We also demonstrated that RKE contained linolenic acid (LIA), oleic acid (OA), and hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids (HODEs), which activate PPARα, using LC-MS analysis. Our findings suggest that RKE, containing LIA, OA, and HODEs, could be valuable in improving dyslipidemia via PPARα activation.