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Bioaccessibility and Antioxidant Activity of Calendula officinalis Supercritical Extract as Affected by in Vitro Codigestion with Olive Oil

Martin, Diana, Navarro del Hierro, Joaquín, Villanueva Bermejo, David, Fernández-Ruiz, Ramón, Fornari, Tiziana, Reglero, Guillermo
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2016 v.64 no.46 pp. 8828-8837
Calendula officinalis, antioxidant activity, bioavailability, digestion, in vitro digestion, lupeol, olive oil, particle size distribution
Supercritical extracts of marigold (ME) were produced and characterized. The bioaccessibility of terpenes, especially that of pentacyclic triterpenes (PT), the particle-size distribution, and antioxidant activity after the in vitro codigestion of ME with olive oil (OO) were determined. ME produced without cosolvent was richer in taraxasterol, lupeol, α-amyrin, and β-amyrin than extracts with cosolvent. All terpenes showed high bioaccessibility without OO (>75%). Significant correlations were found between the molecular properties of compounds (logP and number of rotatable bonds) and their bioaccessibility. Codigestion with OO enhanced the bioaccessibility (around 100% for PT), which could be related to a higher abundance of low-size particles of the digestion medium. The antioxidant activity of the digested ME increased around 50%, regardless of OO. PT-rich extracts from marigold display high bioaccessibility and improved antioxidant activity after in vitro digestion, although complete bioaccessibility of PT can be reached by codigestion with oil, without affecting antioxidant activity.