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De novo balanced complex chromosome rearrangements involving chromosomes 1B and 3B of wheat and 1R of rye

Ren, Tianheng, Li, Zhi, Yan, Benju, Tan, Feiquan, Tang, Zongxiang, Fu, Shulan, Yang, Manyu, Ren, Zhenglong
Genome 2016 v.59 no.12 pp. 1076-1084
agronomic traits, chromosome breakage, chromosome translocation, chromosomes, cultivars, genome, grain yield, hybrids, mature plants, monosomics, powdery mildew, progeny, rye, seeds, stripe rust, translocation lines, wheat
Complex chromosome rearrangements (CCRs) are defined as structural abnormalities involving more than two chromosome breaks, coupled with exchanges of chromosomal segments. Information on CCRs in plants is limited. In the present study, a plant (26-4) harboring translocation chromosomes 1RS.1BL and 4RS.4DL was selected from a double monosomic (1R and 4R) addition line, which was derived from the hybrid between wheat cultivar MY11 and a Chinese local rye variety. The genome of the plant with double alien translocation chromosomes in the monosomic form showed more instability than that harboring a single translocation. The CCRs involving chromosomes 1RS.1BL and 3B, which were generated de novo in this plant, showed double monosomic translocation chromosomes. A new CCR line with balanced reciprocal translocations 1RS.3BL and 3BS.1BL was developed, which presented normal morphological traits of wheat and underwent rapid growth in the field. A new 1RS.1BL translocation line was also selected from the progeny of plant 26-4. The CCRs and simple 1RS.1BL translocation lines showed significant improvement in grain yield, number of spikes per square meter, kernel number per spike, and resistance to stripe rust and powdery mildew. The CCR line exhibited better agronomic traits and adult plant resistance in the field than its sister line, which harbored a simple 1RS.1BL translocation. The CCRs are remarkable genetic resources for crop improvement.