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Alginate Bead Based Hexagonal Close Packed 3D Implant for Bone Tissue Engineering

Agarwal, Tarun, Kabiraj, Prajna, Narayana, Gautham Hari, Kulanthaivel, Senthilguru, Kasiviswanathan, Uvanesh, Pal, Kunal, Giri, Supratim, Maiti, Tapas K., Banerjee, Indranil
ACS applied materials 2016 v.8 no.47 pp. 32132-32145
Escherichia coli, alkaline phosphatase, angiogenesis, bones, calcium, calcium alginate, cell cycle, cell viability, collagen, cytoskeleton, drugs, humans, ions, metronidazole, models, osteoblasts, stem cells, tissue engineering, vascular endothelial growth factors, viscoelasticity
Success of bone tissue engineering (BTE) relies on the osteogenic microarchitecture of the biopolymeric scaffold and appropriate spatiotemporal distribution of therapeutic molecules (growth factors and drugs) inside it. However, the existing technologies have failed to address both the issues together. Keeping this perspective in mind, we have developed a novel three-dimensional (3D) implant prototype by stacking hexagonal close packed (HCP) layers of calcium alginate beads. The HCP arrangement of the beads lead to a patterned array of interconnected tetrahedral and octahedral pores of average diameter of 142.9 and 262.9 μm, respectively, inside the implant. The swelling pattern of the implants changed from isotropic to anisotropic in the z-direction in the absence of bivalent calcium ions (Ca²⁺) in the swelling buffer. Incubation of the implant in simulated body fluid (SBF) resulted in a 2.7-fold increase in the compressive modulus. The variation in the relaxation times as derived from the Weichert viscoelasticity model predicted a gradual increase in the interactions among the alginate molecules in the matrix. We demonstrated the tunability of the spatiotemporal drug release from the implant in a tissue mimicking porous semisolid matrix as well as in conventional drug release set up by changing the spatial coordinates of the “drug loaded depot layer” inside the implant. The therapeutic potential of the implant was confirmed against Escherichia coli using metronidazole as the model drug. Detailed analysis of cell viability, cell cycle progression, and cytoskeletal reorganization using osteoblast cells (MG-63) proved the osteoconductive nature of the implant. Expression of differentiation markers such as alkaline phosphatase, runx2, and collagen type 1 in human mesenchymal stem cell in vitro confirmed the osteogenic nature of the implant. When tested in vivo, VEGF loaded implant was found capable of inducing angiogenesis in a mice model. In conclusion, the bead based implant may find its utility in non-load-bearing BTE.