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Synthesis of Graphene Nanoribbons by Ambient-Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition and Device Integration

Chen, Zongping, Zhang, Wen, Palma, Carlos-Andres, Lodi Rizzini, Alberto, Liu, Bilu, Abbas, Ahmad, Richter, Nils, Martini, Leonardo, Wang, Xiao-Ye, Cavani, Nicola, Lu, Hao, Mishra, Neeraj, Coletti, Camilla, Berger, Reinhard, Klappenberger, Florian, Kläui, Mathias, Candini, Andrea, Affronte, Marco, Zhou, Chongwu, De Renzi, Valentina, del Pennino, Umberto, Barth, Johannes V., Räder, Hans Joachim, Narita, Akimitsu, Feng, Xinliang, Müllen, Klaus
Journal of the American Chemical Society 2016 v.138 no.47 pp. 15488-15496
chemical structure, electronics, graphene, mass spectrometry, photonics, polymers, vapors
Graphene nanoribbons (GNRs), quasi-one-dimensional graphene strips, have shown great potential for nanoscale electronics, optoelectronics, and photonics. Atomically precise GNRs can be “bottom-up” synthesized by surface-assisted assembly of molecular building blocks under ultra-high-vacuum conditions. However, large-scale and efficient synthesis of such GNRs at low cost remains a significant challenge. Here we report an efficient “bottom-up” chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process for inexpensive and high-throughput growth of structurally defined GNRs with varying structures under ambient-pressure conditions. The high quality of our CVD-grown GNRs is validated by a combination of different spectroscopic and microscopic characterizations. Facile, large-area transfer of GNRs onto insulating substrates and subsequent device fabrication demonstrate their promising potential as semiconducting materials, exhibiting high current on/off ratios up to 6000 in field-effect transistor devices. This value is 3 orders of magnitude higher than values reported so far for other thin-film transistors of structurally defined GNRs. Notably, on-surface mass spectrometry analyses of polymer precursors provide unprecedented evidence for the chemical structures of the resulting GNRs, especially the heteroatom doping and heterojunctions. These results pave the way toward the scalable and controllable growth of GNRs for future applications.