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Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils of Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum canum and Ocimum gratissimum in Function of Harvesting Time

Mith, Hasika, Yayi-Ladékan, Eléonore, Sika Kpoviessi, Salomé Dosso, Yaou Bokossa, Innocent, Moudachirou, Mansourou, Daube, Georges, Clinquart, Antoine
Journal of essential oil-bearing plants 2016 v.19 no.6 pp. 1413-1425
Listeria monocytogenes, Ocimum americanum, Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum gratissimum, Salmonella Typhimurium, aerial parts, antibacterial properties, bacteria, carvacrol, chemical composition, essential oils, gamma-terpinene, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, harvest date, hydrodistillation, ionization, linalool, minimum inhibitory concentration, oils, p-cymene, thymol, Benin
The chemical composition of essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from aerial parts of Ocimum basilicum , Ocimum canum and Ocimum gratissimum from Benin as affected by harvesting time, were analyzed by GC-FID (Gas chromatography-Flame ionization detector) and GC-MS (Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry). Based on the composition analysis, major components were as follows: estragol (43.0–44.7%) and linalool (24.6–29.8%) in O. basilicum oils; carvacrol (12.0–30.8%) and p-cymene (19.5–26.2%) in O. canum oils; thymol (28.3–37.7%) and γ-terpinene (12.5–19.3%) in O. gratissimum oils. Disc diffusion and broth microdilution assays were used to evaluate the antibacterial activity of essential oils and their main components against two foodborne bacteria, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium. The tested oils and their components exhibited notable antimicrobial activities against L. monocytogenes and S. Typhimurium. The O. canum and O. gratissimum oils collected at 7h and 19h showed significant higher activities against L. monocytogenes and S. Typhimurium (MICs and MBCs 0.34–2.5 μL/ mL) (p < 0.05), whereas O. basilicum showed lower activity (MICs and MBCs 2.0–8.0 μL/mL) at any daytime of harvest, the weakest being at 19h (MIC and MBC 12.0–32.0 μL/mL). The daytime of harvest can influence the composition of oils and their activities on bacteria.