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Essential Oil Constituents and Biological Activities of Different Ecotypes of Satureja bachtiarica Bunge. as a Traditional Herbal Drug in Southwestern Iran

Alizadeh, Ardalan
Journal of essential oil-bearing plants 2016 v.19 no.6 pp. 1328-1339
2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Satureja, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, aerial parts, antibacterial properties, antioxidant activity, borneol, carvacrol, chemical composition, ecotypes, essential oils, free radical scavengers, gallic acid, gamma-terpinene, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, habitats, herbal medicines, hydrodistillation, industry, inhibitory concentration 50, linalool, medicinal plants, oils, p-cymene, pathogens, quercetin, thymol, Iran
Satureja bachtiarica Bunge. belonging to the family Lamiaceae is an important folkloric medicinal plant in Fars province, South western Iran. In this study, essential oil constituents, phenolic content, antioxidant and antibacterial activities from the aerial parts of S. bachtiarica collected from different natural habitats of Fars province were investigated. The essential oil of all samples was extracted by hydro-distillation using Clevenger type apparatus and analyzed using GC and GC-MS. The main chemical constituents were carvacrol (54.95-65.48 %), thymol (12-15.70 %), γ-terpinene (4.55-13.55 %), p-cymene (1.39-5 %), E-caryophyllene (2.22-4.82 %), linalool (2.34-4.09 %) and borneol (1.25-3.64 %). The total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts were determined with the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, respectively. Total phenols varied from 38.38 to 44.55 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight (dw), and IC ₅₀ values in the radical scavenging assay ranged from 30.24 to 37.24 mg/mL, while those in the FRAP assay were between 36.45 and 43.24 μM quercetin equivalents/g dw. Results of this study indicated that methanolic extract of S. bachtiarica have high phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils was individually evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans using disc diffusion and serial dilution methods. The oils of various geographical and cultivation methods, showed high activity against four medically important pathogens. The results support the traditional usage and also possible use of S. bachtiarica essential oil and extracts in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.