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Alpha-amylase Inhibition and Brine Shrimp Lethality Activities of Nine Medicinal Plant Extracts from South-West Nigerian Ethnomedicine

Ogbole, Omonike Oluyemisi, Aliu, Latifat Olabimpe, Abiodun, Oyindamola Olajumoke, Ajaiyeoba, Edith Oriabure
Journal of herbs, spices & medicinal plants 2016 v.22 no.4 pp. 319-326
Acanthospermum hispidum, Alchornea, Artemia, Holarrhena floribunda, Ipomoea asarifolia, Nauclea diderrichii, Piper guineense, acarbose, alpha-amylase, butanol, ethyl acetate, inhibitory concentration 50, lethal concentration 50, medicinal plants, methanol, methylene chloride, mortality, plant extracts, solvents, toxicity, traditional medicine
Acanthospermum hispidum, Alchornea laxiflora, Calyptrochilum christyanum, Heliotropicum indicum, Holarrhena floribunda, Ipomoea asarifolia, Nauclea diderrichii, Piper guineense , and Tetracera scandens were extracted into methanol and screened for the availability of alpha-amylase inhibitors. Plant extracts’ toxicity was determined by brine shrimp lethality assay (BSLA). The most active plant, Nauclea diderichii , was fractionated into four solvent systems (n -hexane fractions, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, and n -butanol) and tested. All the extracts showed varying degrees of alpha-amylase inhibitory activity. N. diderrichii with IC ₅₀ = 248.30 ± 0.27 µ g.mL –¹ had the highest inhibitory activity, while its butanol fraction with IC ₅₀ = 137.8 µ g.mL –¹ had activity comparable to the standard α -amylase inhibitor acarbose (IC ₅₀ = 177.50 ± 0.42 µ g.mL –¹). LC ₅₀ values for BSLA ranged from 11.35 to 1,127.50 µ g.mL –¹, with T. scandens being the most toxic with 11.35 µ g.mL –¹ and N. diderrichii the least toxic with 1,127.50 µ g.mL –¹.