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Chromium supplementation alters both glucose and lipid metabolism in feedlot cattle during the receiving period

B. C. Berhard, N. C. Burdick, R. J. Rathmann, J. A. Carroll, D. N. Finck, M. A. Jennings, T. R. Young, B. J. Johnson
Journal of animal science 2012 v.90 no. pp. 4857-4865
adipose tissue, blood glucose, blood lipids, blood sampling, blood serum, catheters, chromium, dietary mineral supplements, feed supplements, feedlots, free fatty acids, glucose, glucose tolerance, insulin, insulin resistance, lipolysis, propionates, steers
Crossbred steers (n = 20; 235 ± 4 kg) were fed for 53 d during a receiving period to determine if supplementing chromium (Cr; KemTRACE Chromium Propionate 0.04%, Kemin Industries, Des Moines, IA) would alter glucose or lipid metabolism of newly received cattle. Chromium premixes were supplemented to add 0 (Con) or 0.2 mg/kg of Cr to the total diet on a DM basis. Cattle were fi tted with jugular catheters on d 52. A glucose tolerance test (GTT) and an insulin sensitivity test (IST) were conducted on d 53. Blood samples were collected from –60 to 150 min relative to each infusion. Serum was isolated to determine glucose, insulin, and NEFA concentrations. Throughout GTT, no differences were detected in glucose concentrations, glucose clearance rates (k), or preinfusion insulin concentrations (P > 0.50), but insulin concentrations postinfusion tended (P = 0.06) to be greater for the Cr-supplemented steers. This caused an increase in the insulin to glucose ratio (I:G) from 0 to 150 min postinfusion for the Cr-supplemented steers (P = 0.03). In addition, NEFA concentrations during GTT were lower (P ≤ 0.01) for Cr-supplemented steers both preinfusion and postinfusion. During IST, there was no treatment effect on glucose concentrations preinfusion (P = 0.38), but postinfusion glucose concentrations were greater (P< 0.01) in the Cr-supplemented steers. The k of Cr-supplemented steers tended (P = 0.06) to be faster than Con steers from 30 to 45 min postinfusion. During the same test, there was no treatment effect detected for insulin concentrations (P > 0.33). The I:G were not affected by treatment (P > 0.40).Concentrations of NEFA were reduced (P < 0.01) both preinfusion and postinfusion during IST for Cr-supplemented steers. Results of this study indicate that supplementation of Cr can signifi cantly alter lipid metabolism. This suggests that these steers had less dependence on lipid metabolism for energy or sensitivity of adipose tissue to antilipolytic signals was reduced. Results of glucose and insulin metabolism were inconsistently modifi ed after a GTT and an IST.