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Host cell restriction factors that limit transcription and replication of human papillomavirus
- Porter, Samuel S., Stepp, Wesley H., Stamos, James D., McBride, Alison A.
- Virus research 2017 v.231 pp. 10-20
- Papillomaviridae, antiviral properties, chronic diseases, gene expression, genes, humans, keratinocytes
- The life cycle of human papillomaviruses (HPV) is tightly regulated by the differentiation state of mucosal and cutaneous keratinocytes. To counteract viral infection, constitutively expressed cellular factors, which are defined herein as restriction factors, directly mitigate viral gene expression and replication. In turn, some HPV gene products target these restriction factors and abrogate their anti-viral effects to establish efficient gene expression and replication programs. Ironically, in certain circumstances, this delicate counterbalance between viral gene products and restriction factors facilitates persistent infection by HPVs. This review serves to recapitulate the current knowledge of nuclear restriction factors that directly affect the HPV infectious cycle.