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Recent advances in preclinical model systems for papillomaviruses
- Christensen, Neil D., Budgeon, Lynn R., Cladel, Nancy M., Hu, Jiafen
- Virus research 2017 v.231 pp. 108-118
- Papillomaviridae, animal models, cattle, cell culture, disease course, dogs, host-pathogen relationships, hosts, humans, innate immunity, rabbits, vaccines, viral proteins
- Preclinical model systems to study multiple features of the papillomavirus life cycle have greatly aided our understanding of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) biology, disease progression and treatments. The challenge to studying HPV in hosts is that HPV along with most PVs are both species and tissue restricted. Thus, fundamental properties of HPV viral proteins can be assessed in specialized cell culture systems but host responses that involve innate immunity and host restriction factors requires preclinical surrogate models. Fortunately, there are several well-characterized and new animal models of papillomavirus infections that are available to the PV research community. Old models that continue to have value include canine, bovine and rabbit PV models and new rodent models are in place to better assess host-virus interactions. Questions arise as to the strengths and weaknesses of animal PV models for HPV disease and how accurately these preclinical models predict malignant progression, vaccine efficacy and therapeutic control of HPV-associated disease. In this review, we examine current preclinical models and highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the various models as well as provide an update on new opportunities to study the numerous unknowns that persist in the HPV research field.