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Antigenic variation of LaSota and genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and their efficacy against challenge with velogenic NDV

Yang, Hui-ming, Zhao, Jing, Xue, Jia, Yang, Yan-ling, Zhang, Guo-zhong
Vaccine 2017 v.35 no.1 pp. 27-32
chickens, cross reaction, Newcastle disease, hemagglutination, neutralization, blood serum, eyes, monitoring, serodiagnosis, antibodies, serotypes, vaccines, animal tests, Avian orthoavulavirus 1, viruses, genotype, immunization, antigenic variation, poultry industry
Continued monitoring and evaluation of vaccine efficacy against prevalent or newly isolated strains has great importance in advising Newcastle disease (ND) immunization strategy. In this study, we systematically analysed the antigenic variation between genotype VII NDV aSG10 and the commercial vaccine strain LaSota, and assessed their efficacy against challenge with velogenic NDV by serological analysis and animal testing. We show that these two viruses are antigenically distinguishable; anti-NDV aSG10 hyper-immune sera demonstrated higher haemagglutination inhibition (HI) titres (11.13±0.30log2) against the aSG10 virus, compared with titres against LaSota (9.53±0.50log2). Conversely, the hyper-immune sera from LaSota showed higher HI titres against LaSota virus (9.73±0.36log2), but 2-fold lower HI titre against aSG10 (8.87±0.38log2). Each serum neutralised heterologous virus, but neutralisation titres were always 3- to 6-fold higher against its homologous strain than heterologous virus. The cross-reactivity R value between aSG10 and LaSota was 0.23, indicating that they are loosely related with major antigenic differences within a single serotype. The results of animal tests revealed that the aSG10 vaccine had a significantly higher protection rate than the LaSota vaccine against genotype VII NDV, regardless of intramuscular (IM) or eye drop/intranasal (ED/IN) route of SG10 challenge. Compared with IM administration, chicken flocks needed higher HI antibody levels to obtain sufficient protection when challenged by the natural ED/IN route. These results are highly informative for better control of ND in the poultry industry.