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Musca domestica Salivary Gland Hypertrophy Virus, a Globally Distributed Insect Virus That Infects and Sterilizes Female Houseflies

Prompiboon, Pannipa, Lietze, Verena-Ulrike, Denton, John S. S., Geden, Christopher J., Steenberg, Tove, Boucias, Drion G.
Applied and environmental microbiology 2010 v.76 no.4 pp. 994
DNA-directed DNA polymerase, public health, economics, Musca domestica, adults, bioassays, disease resistance, dsDNA viruses, eclosion, female fertility, females, genes, geographical distribution, hypertrophy, insect viruses, insects, livestock, oogenesis, open reading frames, pests, phylogeny, proteins, salivary glands, sterilizing, virulence, Asia, Caribbean, Europe, North America, Pacific Ocean Islands
The housefly, Musca domestica, is a cosmopolitan pest of livestock and poultry and is of economic, veterinary, and public health importance. Populations of M. domestica are naturally infected with M. domestica salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV), a nonoccluded double-stranded DNA virus that inhibits egg production in infected females and is characterized by salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH) symptoms. MdSGHV has been detected in housefly samples from North America, Europe, Asia, the Caribbean, and the southwestern Pacific. In this study, houseflies were collected from various locations and dissected to observe SGH symptoms, and infected gland pairs were collected for MdSGHV isolation and amplification in laboratory-reared houseflies. Differences among the MdSGHV isolates were examined by using molecular and bioassay approaches. Approximately 600-bp nucleotide sequences from each of five open reading frames having homology to genes encoding DNA polymerase and partial homology to the genes encoding four per os infectivity factor proteins (p74, pif-1, pif-2, and pif-3) were selected for phylogenetic analyses. Nucleotide sequences from 16 different geographic isolates were highly homologous, and the polymorphism detected was correlated with geographic source. The virulence of the geographic MdSGHV isolates was evaluated by per os treatment of newly emerged and 24-h-old houseflies with homogenates of infected salivary glands. In all cases, 24-h-old flies displayed a resistance to oral infection that was significantly greater than that displayed by newly eclosed adults. Regardless of the MdSGHV isolate tested, all susceptible insects displayed similar degrees of SGH and complete suppression of oogenesis.