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Cardiac dysfunction, mitochondrial architecture, energy production, and inflammatory pathways: Interrelated aspects in endotoxemia and sepsis

Alvarez, Silvia, Vico, Tamara, Vanasco, Virginia
The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology 2016 v.81 pp. 307-314
adenosine triphosphate, autophagy, biogenesis, cardiac output, cardiolipins, collagen, cytokines, endotoxemia, energy, genetic markers, heart, inflammation, mitochondria, models, mortality, myocarditis, nitric oxide, oxidative phosphorylation, patients, quality control, sepsis (infection), transcription (genetics), transcription factor NF-kappa B
Septic patients with myocardial dysfunction have a 3-fold increase in mortality compared with patients without cardiovascular impairment, and usually show myocarditis, disruption of the contractile apparatus, increased amounts of interstitial collagen, and damaged mitochondria. The presence of nitric oxide and cytokines in cardiac tissue constitute the molecular markers and the intracellular messengers of inflammatory conditions in the heart due to the onset of sepsis and endotoxemia, derived from the nuclear factor-κB pathway activation and proinflammatory gene transcription. Sepsis occurs with an exacerbated inflammatory response that damages tissue mitochondria and impaired bioenergetic processes. The heart consumes 20–30 times its own weight in adenosine triphosphate every day, and 90% of this molecule is derived from mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Cardiac energy management is comprised in sepsis and endotoxemia; both a deficit in energy production and alterations in the source of energy substrates are believed to be involved in impaired cardiac function. Although several hypotheses try to explain the molecular mechanisms underlying the complex condition of sepsis and endotoxemia, the current view is that these syndromes are the result of an intricate balance between prevailing levels of mitochondrial stress, biogenesis/autophagy signaling and mitochondria quality control processes, rather on a single factor. The aim of this review is to discuss current hypothesis of cardiac dysfunction related to energy metabolism and mitochondrial function in experimental models of sepsis and endotoxemia, and to introduce the importance of lipids (mainly cardiolipin) in the mechanism of cardiac energy mismanagement in these inflammatory conditions.