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Interaction Forces and Aggregation Rates of Colloidal Latex Particles in the Presence of Monovalent Counterions B

Montes Ruiz-Cabello, F. Javier, Trefalt, Gregor, Oncsik, Tamas, Szilagyi, Istvan, Maroni, Plinio, Borkovec, Michal
The Journal of physical chemistry 2015 v.119 no.25 pp. 8184-8193
atomic force microscopy, coagulation, electrolytes, latex, light scattering, physical chemistry, polystyrenes, surface roughness
Force profiles and aggregation rates involving positively and negatively charged polystyrene latex particles are investigated in monovalent electrolyte solutions, whereby the counterions are varied within the Hofmeister series. The force measurements are carried out with the colloidal probe technique, which is based on the atomic force microscope (AFM), while the aggregation rates are measured with time-resolved multiangle light scattering. The interaction force profiles cannot be described by classical DLVO theory, but an additional attractive short-ranged force must be included. An exponential force profile with a decay length of about 0.5 nm is consistent with the measured forces. Furthermore, the Hamaker constants extracted from the measured force profiles are substantially smaller than the theoretical values calculated from dielectric spectra. The small surface roughness of the latex particles (below 1 nm) is probably responsible for this deviation. Based on the measured force profiles, the aggregation rates can be predicted without adjustable parameters. The measured absolute aggregation rates in the fast regime are somewhat lower than the calculated ones. The critical coagulation concentration (CCC) agrees well with the experiment, including the respective shifts of the CCC within the Hofmeister series. These shifts are particularly pronounced for the positively charged particles. However, the consideration of the additional attractive short-ranged force is essential to quantify these shifts correctly. In the slow regime, the calculated rates are substantially smaller than the experimental ones. This disagreement is probably related to surface charge heterogeneities.