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Cell Growth on (“Janus”) Density Gradients of Bifunctional Zeolite L Crystals
- Kehr, Nermin Seda, Motealleh, Andisheh, Schäfer, Andreas H.
- ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2016 v.8 no.51 pp. 35081-35090
- biopolymers, cell adhesion, cell growth, crystals, extracellular matrix, fibroblasts, glass, nanoparticles, zeolites
- Nanoparticle density gradients on surfaces have attracted interest as two-dimensional material surfaces that can mimic the complex nano-/microstructure of the native extracellular matrix, including its chemical and physical gradients, and can therefore be used to systematically study cell–material interactions. In this respect, we report the preparation of density gradients made of bifunctional zeolite L crystals on glass surfaces and the effects of the density gradient and biopolymer functionalization of zeolite L crystals on cell adhesion. We also describe how we created “Janus” density gradient surfaces by gradually depositing two different types of zeolite L crystals that were functionalized and loaded with different chemical groups and guest molecules onto the two distinct sides of the same glass substrate. Our results show that more cells adhered on the density gradient of biopolymer-coated zeolites than on uncoated ones. The number of adhered cells increased up to a certain surface coverage of the glass by the zeolite L crystals, but then it decreased beyond the zeolite density at which a higher surface coverage decreased fibroblast cell adhesion and spreading. Additionally, cell experiments showed that cells gradually internalized the guest-molecule-loaded zeolite L crystals from the underlying density gradient containing bifunctional zeolite L crystals.