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Optimization of the natural debittering of table olives

Ramírez, Eva, Medina, Eduardo, García, Pedro, Brenes, Manuel, Romero, Concepción
Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + [i.e. und] Technologie 2017 v.77 pp. 308-313
acetic acid, beta-glucosidase, brining, esterases, hydrolysis, oleuropein, olives, phenol, physicochemical properties, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide, storage temperature
Olives can debitter naturally without the use of NaOH but it is a very slow process. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the influence of both temperature and chemical characteristics of brine on the oleuropein hydrolysis rate in natural table olives. Two different phases were established for natural debittering. During the first 1–2 months of brining, a low concentration of NaCl (60 g/L) and acetic acid (2 g/L) together with a low storage temperature (10 °C) were the processing conditions that promoted a rapid hydrolysis of the bitter phenol because these mild conditions facilitated the action of endogenous enzymes (β-glucosidase and esterase). Thereafter, higher concentrations and temperature of storage (140 g/L NaCl, 16 g/L acetic acid and 40 °C) favored the chemical hydrolysis of oleuropein during long term (a few months) storage. These results will contribute to the knowledge of the natural debittering of table olives and they will help processors to accelerate their elaboration methods.