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Effect of strategic administration of an encapsulated blend of formic acid, citric acid, and essential oils on Salmonella carriage, seroprevalence, and growth of finishing pigs
- Walia, Kavita, Argüello, Hector, Lynch, Helen, Leonard, Finola C., Grant, Jim, Yearsley, Dermot, Kelly, Sinead, Duffy, Geraldine, Gardiner, Gillian E., Lawlor, Peadar G.
- Preventive veterinary medicine 2017 v.137 pp. 28-35
- Salmonella, absorbance, average daily gain, blood, carcass quality, cecum, citric acid, commercial farms, diet, digesta, encapsulation, essential oils, feces, feed additives, feed conversion, feed intake, feed prices, finishing, formic acid, growth performance, lymph nodes, pork, risk, salmonellosis, seroprevalence, slaughter, swine, swine feeding, Ireland
- Controlling Salmonella at farm level can act as the first line of defence in reducing salmonellosis from pork. This study investigated the efficacy of an encapsulated blend of formic acid, citric acid, and essential oils (FormaXOL™) administered to finisher pigs for 28days prior to slaughter in controlling Salmonella shedding on a commercial farm with a history of high Salmonella seroprevalence.Fourteen pens of 8–10 pigs/pen were randomly assigned to a control (finisher diet without additive) or a treatment group (the same diet with 4kg/t of FormaXOL™) for 28 days. Faeces were collected from each pig on days 0, 14, and 28, while on day 29 blood, caecal digesta and ileocaecal-mesenteric lymph nodes were collected at slaughter. Pigs were weighed at the start and end of the trial, feed intake was recorded, and carcass quality parameters were recorded at slaughter.On day 14, Salmonella shedding was reduced in the treatment compared to the control group (27.9% versus 51.7% probability of detecting Salmonella in faeces, respectively; p=0.001). However, on day 28, no reduction was observed (20.6% versus 35.9% probability of detecting Salmonella in faeces, respectively; p=0.07). Interestingly, Salmonella shedding rates in the treated pigs remained stable throughout the trial compared to the control group. This suggests that the feed additive prevented additional pigs from acquiring the Salmonella infection. A lower Salmonella seroprevalence was detected at slaughter in the treatment compared to the control group using the 40% optical density cut-off (64.5% versus 88.5%, respectively; p=0.01). However, no significant differences in Salmonella recovery rates were observed in the caecal digesta or lymph nodes between treated and control groups. Treated pigs had a lower feed intake than pigs fed the control diet (p=0.001); however, average daily gain and feed conversion efficiency were not affected by treatment (p=0.45 and 0.55, respectively). Consequently, supplementing the diet with FormaXOL™ for 28days increased the feed cost per kg of live-weight gain by €0.08.Overall, results suggest that strategic administration of an encapsulated blend of formic acid, citric acid, and essential oils, to finishing pigs for 28days prior to slaughter has potential to prevent increased Salmonella shedding at certain time points as well as seroprevalence. However, this additive did not lower intestinal carriage, nor did it reduce seroprevalence to below the cut-off used for the high Salmonella risk category in Ireland (50%) or improve growth performance.