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Insect deterrent and nematicidal screening of microfungi from Mexico and anti-aphid compounds from Gliomastix masseei

Ruiz-Jiménez, Ana L., González-Coloma, Azucena, Andrés-Yeves, Mari Fe, Ruiz-Sánchez, Esaú, Heredia, Gabriela, Peraza-Sánchez, Sergio R., Medina-Baizabal, Irma L., Reyes-Estebanez, Manuela, Canto-Canché, Blondy, Gamboa-Angulo, Marcela
Revista Argentina de Microbiologia 2017 v.49 pp. 83-92
Clonostachys rosea, Meloidogyne javanica, Myzus persicae, Rhopalosiphum padi, Spodoptera littoralis, active ingredients, bioactive properties, biopesticides, ethyl acetate, fatty acids, fungi, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, median effective concentration, metabolites, phytophagous insects, plant parasitic nematodes, plant pests, screening, tropics, Mexico
Fungal metabolites are promising alternatives for the development of biorational pesticides. In this sense, microfungi from tropical regions are valuable sources of natural compounds for pest management. With the aim of broadening the search for new eco-friendly products to manage plant pests, this study was carried out to evaluate the biological activity of 23 tropical fungal extracts on three species of phytophagous insects and a plant parasitic nematode. In addition, the active principles of the most effective extract were identified. The insect deterrent activity of fungal extracts was evaluated on the settling of aphids Myzus persicae and Rhopalosiphum padi, and on the feeding of lepidoptera larva Spodoptera littoralis; the nematostatic activity was evaluated on the mobility of Meloidogyne javanica. Active metabolites from Gliomastix masseei were identified by GC–MS techniques and by comparison with commercial standards. Results showed seven extracts with strong effect on the settling of M. persicae and R. padi (settling inhibition >80%). The calculated median of effective concentration (EC50) values ranged from 8 to 38μg/cm2 for the extracts of Clonostachys rosea and G. masseei, respectively. Bioassay-guided separation of the ethyl acetate extract of G. masseei revealed the presence of fatty acids and their derivatives, where methyl 9-octadecenoate was the most active compound with EC50 values of 16μg and 35μg/cm2 for M. persicae and R. padi, respectively. Extracts of C. rosea and G. masseei could be a promising option in the control of pest aphids in agriculture.