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Combinatorial pharmacodynamics of polymyxin B and tigecycline against heteroresistant Acinetobacter baumannii

Rao, Gauri G., Ly, Neang S., Diep, John, Forrest, Alan, Bulitta, Jürgen B., Holden, Patricia N., Nation, Roger L., Li, Jian, Tsuji, Brian T.
International journal of antimicrobial agents 2016 v.48 no.3 pp. 331-336
Acinetobacter baumannii, antibacterial properties, inoculum, pathogens, pharmacodynamics, polymyxin B, synergism, tigecycline
The prevalence of heteroresistant Acinetobacter baumannii is increasing. Infections due to these resistant pathogens pose a global treatment challenge. Here, the pharmacodynamic activities of polymyxin B (PMB) (2–20 mg/L) and tigecycline (0.15–4 mg/L) were evaluated as monotherapy and in combination using a 4 × 4 concentration array against two carbapenem-resistant and polymyxin-heteroresistant A. baumannii isolates. Time Kill Experiments was employed at starting inocula of 10⁶ and 10⁸ CFU/mL over 48 h. Clinically relevant combinations of PMB (2 mg/L) and tigecycline (0.90 mg/L) resulted in greater reductions in the bacterial population compared with polymyxin alone by 8 h (ATCC 19606, −6.38 vs. −3.43 log10 CFU/mL; FADDI AB115, −1.38 vs. 2.08 log10 CFU/mL). At 10× the clinically achievable concentration (PMB 20 mg/L in combination with tigecycline 0.90 mg/L), there was bactericidal activity against FADDI AB115 by 4 h that was sustained until 32 h, and against ATCC 19606 that was sustained for 48 h. These studies show that aggressive polymyxin-based dosing in combination with clinically achievable tigecycline concentrations results in early synergistic activity that is not sustained beyond 8 h, whereas combinations with higher tigecycline concentrations result in sustained bactericidal activity against both isolates at both inocula. These results indicate a need for optimised front-loaded polymyxin-based combination regimens that utilise high polymyxin doses at the onset of treatment to achieve good pharmacodynamic activity whilst minimising adverse events.