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Atorvastatin and metformin administration modulates experimental Trichinella spiralis infection

Othman, Ahmad A., Abou Rayia, Dina M., Ashour, Dalia S., Saied, Eman M., Zineldeen, Doaa H., El-Ebiary, Ahmad A.
Parasitology international 2016 v.65 no.2 pp. 105-112
Trichinella spiralis, histopathology, host-parasite relationships, immunohistochemistry, intestines, larvae, metformin, mice, muscles, oxidative stress, parasites, patients, prostaglandin synthase, therapeutics, vascular endothelial growth factors
The host–parasite interaction can be altered by the changes in the host environment that may be or may not be in favor of successful invasion by the nematode parasite Trichinella spiralis. Metformin and atorvastatin are applied on a wide scale, to the degree that they could be considered as part of the host biochemical environment that can affect the parasite. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the impact of alteration of the host's biochemical environment by these commonly used drugs upon the course of T. spiralis infection. Mice were divided into three groups: (1) received atorvastatin, (2) received metformin, and (3) untreated, then after one week, animals were infected with T. spiralis. The treatment continued until the end of the experiment. From each group, small intestines and muscles were removed for histopathological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical analyses as well as total muscle larval counts. We found that the oxidative stress and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the muscles were significantly reduced in both drug-receiving groups, while the total larval counts in muscles were only significantly reduced in atorvastatin-receiving group as compared to the infected control group. Moreover, marked reduction in the inflammatory cellular infiltration, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, and oxidative stress was noted in the small intestines of the treated groups as compared to the infected control group. In conclusion, this study provides many insights into the different biochemical changes in the host that the parasite has to face. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic effects should be taken into consideration when treating infections in patients on therapy with atorvastatin or metformin.