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CO2 Plant Extracts Reduce Cholesterol Oxidation in Fish Patties during Cooking and Storage

Tarvainen, Marko, Quirin, Karl-Werner, Kallio, Heikki, Yang, Baoru
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2016 v.64 no.51 pp. 9653-9662
Salmo salar, antioxidants, baking, carbon dioxide, cholesterol, cold storage, fish, food additives, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, human health, oregano, oxidation, patties, plant extracts, protective effect, risk, rosemary
Cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) in foods may pose risks for human health. Suitable antioxidants can reduce the formation of COPs in industrial products. Consumer awareness of food additives has brought a need for more natural alternatives. This is the first study on the effects of supercritical CO₂ extracts of rosemary, oregano, and an antimicrobial blend of seven herbs, tested at two levels (1 and 3 g/kg fish), against cholesterol oxidation in patties made of a widely consumed fish species, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), during baking and storage. Cholesterol oxidation was reduced by the extracts as indicated by lowered levels of 7α-hydroxycholesterol, 7β-hydroxycholesterol, and 7-ketocholesterol, which were quantified by GC-MS. The total amount of COPs was smaller in all of the cooked samples containing the plant extracts (<1 μg/g extracted fat) than in the cooked control (14 μg/g). Furthermore, the plant extracts exhibited protective effects also during cold storage for up to 14 days.