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CO2 Plant Extracts Reduce Cholesterol Oxidation in Fish Patties during Cooking and Storage
- Tarvainen, Marko, Quirin, Karl-Werner, Kallio, Heikki, Yang, Baoru
- Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2016 v.64 no.51 pp. 9653-9662
- Salmo salar, antioxidants, baking, carbon dioxide, cholesterol, cold storage, fish, food additives, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, human health, oregano, oxidation, patties, plant extracts, protective effect, risk, rosemary
- Cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) in foods may pose risks for human health. Suitable antioxidants can reduce the formation of COPs in industrial products. Consumer awareness of food additives has brought a need for more natural alternatives. This is the first study on the effects of supercritical CO₂ extracts of rosemary, oregano, and an antimicrobial blend of seven herbs, tested at two levels (1 and 3 g/kg fish), against cholesterol oxidation in patties made of a widely consumed fish species, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), during baking and storage. Cholesterol oxidation was reduced by the extracts as indicated by lowered levels of 7α-hydroxycholesterol, 7β-hydroxycholesterol, and 7-ketocholesterol, which were quantified by GC-MS. The total amount of COPs was smaller in all of the cooked samples containing the plant extracts (<1 μg/g extracted fat) than in the cooked control (14 μg/g). Furthermore, the plant extracts exhibited protective effects also during cold storage for up to 14 days.