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Shewanella putrefaciens – a new opportunistic pathogen of freshwater fish

Paździor, Ewa
Journal of Veterinary Research 2016 v.60 no.4 pp. 429-434
Dicentrarchus labrax, Shewanella putrefaciens, Siganus rivulatus, adhesion, antibiotic resistance, aquaculture, bacteremia, bacteria, cytotoxins, drugs, enzyme activity, etiological agents, farmed fish, freshwater fish, hemorrhage, lipopolysaccharides, otitis, secondary infection, secretion, siderophores, skin diseases, virulence, Poland
In recent years, Shewanella putrefaciens, commonly known as a halophilic bacteria, has been associated with serious health disorders in freshwater fish. Therefore, it has been described as a new aetiological agent of the disease, named shewanellosis. S. putrefaciens is a heterogeneous group of microorganisms, belonging to the Alteromonadaceae family. Based on different criteria, three biovars and biogroups as well as four genomic groups have been distinguished. The first infections of S. putrefaciens in fish were reported in rabbitfish (Siganus rivulatus) and European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.). Outbreaks in farmed fish were reported in Poland for the first time in 2004. The disease causes skin disorders and haemorrhages in internal organs. It should be noted that S. putrefaciens could also be associated with different infections in humans, such as skin and tissue infections, bacteraemia, otitis. Investigations on pathogenic mechanisms of S. putrefaciens infections are very limited. Enzymatic activity, cytotoxin secretion, adhesion ability, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and the presence of siderophores are potential virulence factors of S. putrefaciens. Antimicrobial resistance of S. putrefaciens is different and depends on the isolates. In general, these bacteria are sensitive to antimicrobial drugs commonly used in aquaculture.