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Spatial distribution of altered minerals in the Gadag Schist Belt (GSB) of Karnataka, Southern India using hyperspectral remote sensing data

Rani, Nisha, Mandla, Venkata Ravibabu, Singh, Tejpal
Geocarto international 2017 v.32 no.3 pp. 225-237
absorption, argillite, gneiss, granite, hematite, kaolinite, muscovite, soil, spatial data, spectroradiometers, transition elements, wavelengths, weathering, India
Spatial distribution of altered minerals in rocks and soils in the Gadag Schist Belt (GSB) is carried out using Hyperion data of March 2013. The entire spectral range is processed with emphasis on VNIR (0.4–1.0 μm) and SWIR regions (2.0–2.4 μm). Processing methodology includes Fast Line-of-sight Atmospheric Analysis of Spectral Hypercubes correction, minimum noise fraction transformation, spectral feature fitting (SFF) and spectral angle mapper (SAM) in conjunction with spectra collected, using an analytical spectral device spectroradiometer. A total of 155 bands were analysed to identify and map the major altered minerals by studying the absorption bands between the 0.4–1.0-μm and 2.0–2.3-μm wavelength regions. The most important and diagnostic spectral absorption features occur at 0.6–0.7 μm, 0.86 and at 0.9 μm in the VNIR region due to charge transfer of crystal field effect in the transition elements, whereas absorption near 2.1, 2.2, 2.25 and 2.33 μm in the SWIR region is related to the bending and stretching of the bonds in hydrous minerals (Al-OH, Fe-OH and Mg-OH), particularly in clay minerals. SAM and SFF techniques are implemented to identify the minerals present. A score of 0.33–1 was assigned for both SAM and SFF, where a value of 1 indicates the exact mineral type. However, endmember spectra were compared with United States Geological Survey and John Hopkins University spectral libraries for minerals and soils. Five minerals, i.e. kaolinite-5, kaolinite-2, muscovite, haematite, kaosmec and one soil, i.e. greyish brown loam have been identified. Greyish brown loam and kaosmec have been mapped as the major weathering/altered products present in soils and rocks of the GSB. This was followed by haematite and kaolinite. The SAM classifier was then applied on a Hyperion image to produce a mineral map. The dominant lithology of the area included greywacke, argillite and granite gneiss.