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National Beef Quality Audit-2011: Harvest-floor assessments of targeted characteristics that affect quality and value of cattle, carcasses, and byproducts
- McKeith, R. O., Gray, G. D., Hale, D. S., Kerth, C. R., Griffin, D. B., Savell, J. W., Raines, C. R., Belk, K. E., Woerner, D. R., Tatum, J. D., Igo, J. L., VanOverbeke, D. L., Mafi, G. G., Lawrence, T. E., Delmore, R. J., Christensen, L. M., Shackelford, S. D., King, D. A., Wheeler, T. L., Meadows, L. R., O'Connor, M. E.
- Journal of animal science 2012 v.90 no.13 pp. 5135
- Holstein, audits, beef, beef carcasses, beef cattle, beef quality, branding, byproducts, carcass condemnation, color, contusions, hairs, head, horns, industry, legs, liver, loins, lungs, meat processing, ribs, shoulders, surveys, tail, teams, teeth, tongue, wattles
- The National Beef Quality Audit-2011(NBQA-2011) was conducted to assess targeted characteristics on the harvest floor that affect the quality and value of cattle, carcasses, and byproducts. Survey teams evaluated approximately 18,000 cattle/carcasses between May and November 2011 in 8 beef processing facilities. Cattle identification methods were lot visual tags (85.7%),individual visual tags (50.6%), electronic tags (20.1%),metal-clip tags (15.7%), other (5.3%), none (2.5%), and wattles (0.5%). Hide colors or breed types were black(61.1%), red (12.8%), yellow (8.7%), Holstein (5.5%),brown (5.0%), gray (5.0%), white (1.4%), and brindle 1.0%). Brand frequencies were none (55.2%), 1 (40.4%),2 (4.4%), and 3 or more (0.04%) brands, and brands were located on the butt (35.2%), side (9.0%), and shoulder (2.5%). Hide locations of mud or manure were no mud/manure (49.2%), legs (36.8%), belly (23.7%), side (14.9%), top-line (11.0%), and tail region (13.7%). There were 76.2% of cattle without horns, and the majority of those with horns (71.6%) were between 0 cm and 12.7 cm in length. Permanent incisor numbers were zero (87.3%),1 (1.4%), 2 (8.0%), 3 (0.9%), 4 (1.9%), 5 (0.3%), 6 (0.2%), 7 (0.1%), and 8 (0.02%). Most carcasses (77.0%)were not bruised, 18.7% had 1 bruise, 3.4% had 2 bruises,0.6% had 3 bruises, and 0.3% had more than 3 bruises. Bruise locations were loin (50.1%), rib (21.3%), chuck (13.8%), round (7.3%), and brisket/fl ank/plate (7.5%). Condemnation item and incidence were whole carcass (none recorded), liver (20.9%), lungs (17.3%), tongue (10.0%), viscera (9.3%), and head (7.2%). Compared with the NBQA-2005, the NBQA-2011 had an increased percentage of black-hided cattle (56.3 vs. 61.1%), more cattle with brands (38.7 vs. 44.8%), and more cattle with some form of identifi cation (93.3 vs. 97.5%). In addition,there was a lesser percentage of carcasses with bruising in 2011 (23.0%) than in 2005 (35.2%), as well as a smaller percentage of carcasses with more than 1 bruise (2005 = 9.4% vs. 2011 = 4.2%). Compared with the 2005 audit, a similar percentage of the cattle were deemed 30 mo of age or older using dentition (2005 = 2.7% vs. 2011= 3.3%). The information from NBQA-2011 helps the beef industry measure progress against previous NBQA assessments and provides a benchmark for future educational and research activities.