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Deriving freshwater safety thresholds for hexabromocyclododecane and comparison of toxicity of brominated flame retardants

Dong, Liang, Zheng, Lei, Yang, Suwen, Yan, Zhenguang, Jin, Weidong, Yan, Yuhong
Ecotoxicology and environmental safety 2017
acute toxicity, aquatic organisms, chronic toxicity, freshwater, freshwater ecosystems, hexabromocyclododecane, models, toxicity testing, water quality, China, Netherlands, United States
Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is a brominated flame retardant used throughout the world. It has been detected in various environmental media and has been shown toxic to aquatic life. The toxic effects of HBCD to aquatic organisms in Chinese freshwater ecosystems are discussed here. Experiments were conducted with nine types of acute toxicity testing and three types of chronic toxicity testing. After comparing a range of species sensitivity distribution models, the optimal model of Bull III was used to derive the safety thresholds for HBCD. The acute safety threshold and the chronic safety threshold of HBCD for Chinese freshwater organisms were found to be 2.32mg/L and 0.128mg/L, respectively. Both values were verified by the methods of the Netherlands and the United States. HBCD was found to be less toxic compared to other widely used brominated flame retardants. The present results provide valuable information for revision of the water quality standard of HBCD in China.