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Current advancement in electrochemical analysis of neurotransmitters in biological fluids

Hasanzadeh, Mohammad, Shadjou, Nasrin, Guardia, Miguel de la
Trends in analytical chemistry 2017 v.86 pp. 107-121
acetylcholine, central nervous system diseases, dopamine, electrochemistry, epinephrine, glutamic acid, neurotransmitters, nitric oxide, norepinephrine, serotonin, signal transduction, tryptamine
Analysis of neurotransmitters is useful for the diagnosis of central nervous system diseases. This review gives a general view of recent advances in the development of electrochemical sensors for detection/determination of neurotransmitters. The purpose of the review is to provide useful insights in terms of (a) choice of materials, (b) methods/techniques preferably applied, (c) immobilization procedures, and (d) other practical aspects. Following an introduction into the field, we give a short account on the principle and general types of electrochemical sensors, and then treat sensing methods for neurotransmitters. It is subdivided into sections on (i) Dopamine (ii) Acetylcholine; (iii) Serotonin; (iv) Epinephrine; (v) Norepinephrine (vi) Nitric Oxide (vii) Glutamate and finally (viii) Tryptamine. The review also covers aspects of surface modifications, the effect of structure properties on sensing performance, and the applications of different materials in conjunction with different kind of signal transducers. More importantly, we discuss in detail different aspects of the electrochemical sensors (e.g., detection techniques, analytes (type of neurotransmitters) and the corresponding sensitivity and sample matrix, and several prominent characteristics). Accordingly, we discuss research opportunities and future development trends in these areas.