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Optimization for a fuel cell/battery/capacity tram with equivalent consumption minimization strategy
- Zhang, Wenbin, Li, Jianqiu, Xu, Liangfei, Ouyang, Minggao
- Energy conversion and management 2017 v.134 pp. 59-69
- batteries, energy, fuel cells, hydrogen, lithium
- This paper describes a hybrid tram powered by a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell (FC) stack supported by an energy storage system (ESS) composed of a Li-ion battery (LB) pack and an ultra-capacitor (UC) pack. This configuration allows the tram to operate without grid connection. The hybrid tram with its full load is tested in the CRRC Qingdao Sifang Co.; Ltd. It firstly works on the operation mode switching method (OPMS) without energy regenerative and proper power management. Therefore, an equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS) aimed at minimizing the hydrogen consumption is proposed to improve the characteristics of the tram. The results show that the proposed control system enhances drivability and economy, and is effective for application to this hybrid system.