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Dairy food structures influence the rates of nutrient digestion through different in vitro gastric behaviour

Mulet-Cabero, Ana-Isabel, Rigby, Neil M., Brodkorb, André, Mackie, Alan R.
Food hydrocolloids 2017 v.67 pp. 63-73
acidification, bioavailability, cheeses, cream, creaming, digestion, emulsions, energy content, humans, hydrocolloids, lipids, lipolysis, milk proteins, models, nutrients, oils, physiological response, proteolysis, satiety, small intestine, yogurt
The purpose of this study was to investigate in vitro the extent to which specific food structures alter gastric behaviour and could therefore impact on nutrient delivery and digestion in the small intestine. Results obtained from a specifically developed gastric digestion model, were compared to results from a previous human study on the same foods. The semi-dynamic model could simulate the main gastric dynamics including gradual acidification, lipolysis, proteolysis and emptying. Two dairy-based foods with the same caloric content but different structure were studied. The semi-solid meal comprised a mixture of cheese and yogurt and the liquid meal was an oil in water emulsion stabilised by milk proteins. Our findings showed similar gastric behaviour to that seen previously in vivo. Gastric behaviour was affected by the initial structure with creaming and sedimentation observed in the case of liquid and semi-solid samples, respectively. Lipid and protein digestion profiles showed clear differences in the amount of nutrients reaching the simulated small intestine and, consequently, the likely bioaccessibility after digestion. The semi-solid sample generated higher nutrient released into the small intestine at an early stage of digestion whereas nutrient accessibility from liquid sample was delayed due to the formation of a cream layer in the gastric phase. This shows the strong effect of the matrix on gastric behaviour, proteolysis and lipolysis, which explains the differences in physiological responses seen previously with these systems in terms of fullness and satiety.