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Kinetics of single and dual infection of pigs with swine influenza virus and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

Pomorska-Mól, Małgorzata, Dors, Arkadiusz, Kwit, Krzysztof, Kowalczyk, Andrzej, Stasiak, Ewelina, Pejsak, Zygmunt
Veterinary microbiology 2017 v.201 pp. 113-120
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Influenza A virus, acute phase proteins, antibodies, disease course, humoral immunity, immune response, mixed infection, nose, pathogens, piglets, pork, respiratory tract diseases, serotypes, virus replication
Porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is a common problem in modern pork production worldwide. Pathogens that are amongst other pathogens frequently involved in PRDC etiology are swine influenza virus (SIV) and A. pleuropneumoniae. The effect of dual infection with mentioned pathogens has not been investigated to date. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the kinetics of single and dual infection of pigs with SIV and A. pleuropneumoniae with regard to clinical course, pathogens shedding, lung lesions and early immune response. The most severe symptoms were observed in co-inoculated piglets. The AUC value for SIV shedding was lower in pigs single inoculated with SIV as compared to co-inoculated animals. In contrast, no significant differences were found between A. pleuropneumoniae shedding in single or dual inoculated pigs. Three out of 5 co-inoculated piglets euthanized at 10 dpi were positive against serotype 2 A. pleuropneumonie. All piglets inoculated with SIV developed specific HI antibodies at 10 dpi. In pigs dual inoculated the specific humoral response against SIV was observed earlier, at 7 dpi. The SIV-like lung lesions were more severe in co-inoculated pigs. In the groups inoculated with A. pleuropneumoniae (single or dual) the acute phase protein response was generally stronger than in SIV-single infected group. Co-infection with SIV and A. pleuropneumoniae potentiated the severity of lung lesions caused by SIV and enhanced virus replication in the lung and nasal SIV shedding. Enhanced SIV replication contributed to a more severe clinical course of the disease as well as earlier and higher magnitude immune response (acute phase proteins, HI antibodies) compared to single inoculated pigs.