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Cardiopulmonary effects of pleural insufflation with CO2 during two-lung ventilation in dorsally recumbent anesthetized horses

Bohaychuk-Preuss, Kaylee S., Carrozzo, M. Valentina, Duke-Novakovski, Tanya
Veterinary anaesthesia and analgesia 2017 v.44 no.3 pp. 483-491
analysis of variance, anesthesia, blood gases, blood pressure, body temperature, butorphanol, carbon dioxide, cardiac output, detomidine, electrolytes, glucose, heart rate, horses, isoflurane, lactic acid, oxygen, sternum, tidal volume, xylazine
To record the cardiopulmonary effects of pleural CO2 positive pressure insufflation in anesthetized horses.Prospective study.Seven horses (mean ± standard deviation, 530.9 ± 68.1 kg) undergoing terminal surgery.Horses were sedated with xylazine. Anesthesia was induced with ketamine–propofol and maintained with isoflurane, positive pressure ventilation, detomidine infusion, and butorphanol with the horses in dorsal recumbency. Baseline measurements were cardiac output, heart rate, pulmonary and systemic arterial and right atrial blood pressures, body temperature, expired and inspired gas concentrations, and arterial and mixed venous blood gases, electrolytes, glucose, and lactate concentrations. An 18 gauge 6.6 cm needle was inserted into the right pleural cavity midway between the sternum and dorsal midline in the sixth or seventh intercostal space for pleural pressure (PP) measurement. A 14 gauge 18 cm needle placed 5 cm below the previous needle allowed CO2 insufflation into the pleural cavity. All measurements were repeated after: needle insertion, at 2, 5, and 8 mmHg PPs, and after pleural gas removal (GR). Data were compared with baseline using one-way analysis of variance with repeated measures. p < 0.05 was considered significant.Actual PPs were within 1.1 mmHg of the targeted PP. Pulmonary systolic and mean arterial pressures, alveolar dead space to tidal volume ratio, and isoflurane requirements increased at 8 mmHg PP and GR. Cardiac index decreased at 5 mmHg PP. Stroke index decreased at 2 mmHg PP to GR. PaO2 decreased at 5 mmHg PP to GR. PaCO2 increased at 8 mmHg PP and GR. Oxygen delivery decreased at 5 and 8 mmHg PP. Intrapulmonary shunt fraction and lactate concentration increased with GR.Severe adverse cardiopulmonary effects arise from CO2 positive pressure insufflation into the right hemithorax in dorsally recumbent isoflurane-anesthetized horses. PP should be ≤2 mmHg.