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Porcine kobuvirus 1 in healthy and diarrheic pigs: Genetic detection and characterization of virus and co-infection with rotavirus A

Jackova, Anna, Sliz, Ivan, Mandelik, Rene, Salamunova, Slavomira, Novotny, Jaroslav, Kolesarova, Mariana, Vlasakova, Michaela, Vilcek, Stefan
Infection, genetics, and evolution 2017 v.49 pp. 73-77
Kobuvirus, Rotavirus A, diarrhea, farms, finishing, genes, mixed infection, nucleotide sequences, phylogeny, piglets, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, suckling, viruses, Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia
The porcine kobuvirus 1 (PKV-1) is believed to be an enteric virus. To investigate the prevalence of PKV-1 in pigs, virus was detected by RT-PCR in rectal swabs originating from 414 healthy and diarrheic pigs of different age categories on farms in Slovakia. Among all ages of animals, PKV-1 was detected equally in diarrheic (63.8%) and clinically healthy (62.9%) pigs. PKV-1 was more often detected in diarrheic (74.6%) than in healthy (64.4%) suckling piglets (<28days) but data was not statistically significant. Results in weaned (28–70days) and fattening (>70days) of both healthy and diarrheic pigs were inconsistent ranging in interval 56.2% to 67.9%. This study did not confirm a clear relationship of PKV-1 infection with diarrhea in pigs. Rotavirus A infection was detected among the same animals in 39% diarrheic and 9.2% healthy suckling piglets (p<0.001) confirming rotavirus as a causative agent of diarrhea in this age group. The difference was not significant in older pigs with both diarrheic and healthy pigs being infected within a range of 0% to 12.2%. Co-infection with PKV-1 and rotavirus A was detected overall in 5.6% of healthy and in 13.5% of diarrheic pigs and was highest in suckling piglets (33.9%). The PKV-1sequences from pigs in Slovakia were analyzed at the genetic level in the partial 3D gene region for the first time. The viral sequences were grouped in phylogenetic clusters according to their farm of origin. When compared with 157 nucleotide sequences originating from pig samples of different countries around the world Slovakian PKV-1 sequences were clustered in the phylogenetic tree with Asian sequences but not with nucleotide sequences from the neighbouring countries of Czech Republic or Hungary.