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Prevalence and risk factors associated with Cryptosporidium spp. infection in young domestic livestock in India

Maurya, Prem Sagar, Rakesh, Radhamma Lakshmipathy, Pradeep, Balaraju, Kumar, Saroj, Kundu, Krishnendu, Garg, Rajat, Ram, Hira, Kumar, Ashok, Banerjee, Partha Sarathi
Tropical animal health and production 2013 v.45 no.4 pp. 941-946
Cryptosporidium parvum, animal age, buffaloes, calves, diarrhea, digestion, feces, females, genotyping, goats, lambs, males, monsoon season, piglets, polymerase chain reaction, ribosomal RNA, risk factors, India
A total of 938 faecal samples (461 cattle calves, 264 buffalo calves, 55 lambs, 116 kids and 42 piglets) from different livestock farms and individual small holdings in six targeted states of India were collected and screened by modified Ziehl–Neelsen staining technique to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and its association with age, sex, season and faecal consistency in domesticated animals. Overall, 16.2 % of the animals were positive for Cryptosporidium infection with prevalence of 16.3, 24.2, 1.8, 3.5 and 19.1 % in cattle calves, buffalo calves, lambs, kids and piglets, respectively. The prevalence of infection was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in bovines (19.3 % cattle and 33.7 % buffalo) below 1 month of age than in animals between 1 and 3 months of age. But in piglets, it was higher in the age group of 1 to 3 months (22.6 %) than in younger animals (9.1 %). Also, higher prevalence (p > 0.05) was recorded in females than in males. Seasons had a significant effect (p < 0.05) on the prevalence of infection in large ruminants, with the highest prevalence in monsoon (cattle 28.8 % and buffalo 36.6 %) followed by pre-monsoon and post-monsoon season. However, in case of sheep and goats, the prevalence was higher (p > 0.05) in post-monsoon than in monsoon season. A high degree of association was noticed between Cryptosporidium infection and diarrhoea in ruminants screened during the present study. But, in case of pigs, the prevalence was higher in non-diarrhoeic than in diarrhoeic animals. Genotyping of Cryptosporidium spp. based on nested PCR amplification of partial 18S rRNA and its subsequent digestion with SspI, VspI and MboII restriction enzymes revealed prevalence of Cryptosporidium parvum in representative number of positive samples of cattle, buffalo and goats.