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Hexim1 heterozygosity stabilizes atherosclerotic plaque and decreased steatosis in ApoE null mice fed atherogenic diet

Dhar-Mascareno, Manya, Rozenberg, Inna, Iqbal, Jahangir, Hussain, M. Mahmood, Beckles, Daniel, Mascareno, Eduardo
The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology 2017 v.83 pp. 56-64
DNA-directed RNA polymerase, animal models, apolipoprotein E, atherosclerosis, cholesterol, cholesterol metabolism, chronic diseases, fatty liver, heterozygosity, high fat diet, hypertrophy, liver, mice, microarray technology, neoplasms, obesity, transcriptome, transforming growth factor beta, triacylglycerols
Hexim-1 is an inhibitor of RNA polymerase II transcription elongation. Decreased Hexim-1 expression in animal models of chronic diseases such as left ventricular hypertrophy, obesity and cancer triggered significant changes in adaptation and remodeling. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the role of Hexim1 in lipid metabolism focused in the progression of atherosclerosis and steatosis. We used the C57BL6 apolipoprotein E (ApoE null) crossed bred to C57BL6Hexim1 heterozygous mice to obtain ApoE null − Hexim1 heterozygous mice (ApoE-HT). Both ApoE null backgrounds were fed high fat diet for twelve weeks. Then, we evaluated lipid metabolism, atherosclerotic plaque formation and liver steatosis. In order to understand changes in the transcriptome of both backgrounds during the progression of steatosis, we performed Affymetrix mouse 430 2.0 microarray. After 12 weeks of HFD, ApoE null and ApoE-HT showed similar increase of cholesterol and triglycerides in plasma. Plaque composition was altered in ApoE-HT. Additionally, liver triglycerides and steatosis were decreased in ApoE-HT mice. Affymetrix analysis revealed that decreased steatosis might be due to impaired inducible SOCS3 expression in ApoE-HT mice. In conclusion, decreased Hexim-1 expression does not alter cholesterol metabolism in ApoE null background after HFD. However, it promotes stable atherosclerotic plaque and decreased steatosis by promoting the anti-inflammatory TGFβ pathway and blocking the expression of the inducible and pro-inflammatory expression of SOCS3 respectively.