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Beverage Consumption Patterns at Age 13 to 17 Years Are Associated with Weight, Height, and Body Mass Index at Age 17 Years

Marshall, Teresa A., Van Buren, John M., Warren, John J., Cavanaugh, Joseph E., Levy, Steven M.
Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 2017 v.117 no.5 pp. 698-706
adolescence, adolescents, adults, analysis of variance, beverages, body mass index, chi-square distribution, childhood obesity, females, fluorides, food choices, income, juices, males, milk, questionnaires, regression analysis
Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) have been associated with obesity in children and adults; however, associations between beverage patterns and obesity are not understood.Our aim was to describe beverage patterns during adolescence and associations between adolescent beverage patterns and anthropometric measures at age 17 years.We conducted a cross-sectional analyses of longitudinally collected data.Data from participants in the longitudinal Iowa Fluoride Study having at least one beverage questionnaire completed between ages 13.0 and 14.0 years, having a second questionnaire completed between 16.0 and 17.0 years, and attending clinic examination for weight and height measurements at age 17 years (n=369) were included.Beverages were collapsed into four categories (ie, 100% juice, milk, water and other sugar-free beverages, and SSBs) for the purpose of clustering. Five beverage clusters were identified from standardized age 13 to 17 years mean daily beverage intakes and named by the authors for the dominant beverage: juice, milk, water/sugar-free beverages, neutral, and SSB.Weight, height, and body mass index (BMI; calculated as kg/m2) at age 17 years were analyzed.We used Ward’s method for clustering of beverage variables, one-way analysis of variance and χ2 tests for bivariable associations, and γ-regression for associations of weight or BMI (outcomes) with beverage clusters and demographic variables. Linear regression was used for associations of height (outcome) with beverage clusters and demographic variables.Participants with family incomes <$60,000 trended shorter (1.5±0.8 cm; P=0.070) and were heavier (2.0±0.7 BMI units; P=0.002) than participants with family incomes ≥$60,000/year. Adjusted mean weight, height, and BMI estimates differed by beverage cluster membership. For example, on average, male and female members of the neutral cluster were 4.5 cm (P=0.010) and 4.2 cm (P=0.034) shorter, respectively, than members of the milk cluster. For members of the juice cluster, mean BMI was lower than for members of the milk cluster (by 2.4 units), water/sugar-free beverage cluster (3.5 units), neutral cluster (2.2 units), and SSB cluster (3.2 units) (all P<0.05).Beverage patterns at ages 13 to 17 years were associated with anthropometric measures and BMI at age 17 years in this sample. Beverage patterns might be characteristic of overall food choices and dietary behaviors that influence growth.