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Chemical composition, radical scavenging and anti-oxidant capacity of Ocimum Basilicum essential oil

Kavoosi, Gholamreza, Amirghofran, Zahra
The Journal of essential oil research 2017 v.29 no.2 pp. 189-199
2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, NAD (coenzyme), Ocimum basilicum, analgesics, anesthetics, antioxidant activity, antioxidants, antiseptics, basil, chemical composition, essential oils, functional properties, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, gene expression, geranial, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals, inducible nitric oxide synthase, macrophages, messenger RNA, mice, neral, nitric oxide, nitrites, nitrogen dioxide, oils, parasympatholytics, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, therapeutics
Ocimum basilicum has several functional characteristics including carminative, stimulant, diuretic, antiseptic, anesthetic, anti-spasmodic, analgesic and anti-tussive properties. O. basilicum essential oil (basil oil) was tested for chemical composition and in vitro and ex vivo anti-oxidant activities. The in vitro anti-oxidant capacity of basil oil was examined using 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hudrazyl radical (DPPH •), 2, 2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical (ABTS •), hydrogen peroxide (H ₂O ₂), hydroxyl radical (HO •), nitric oxide (NO) and nitrite (NO ₂) scavenging effects. The ex vivo anti-oxidant activity of basil oil was determined through measuring NADH oxidase (NOX) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine macrophages using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). GC-MS analysis indicated that the main components in the basil oil were methylchavicol (47%), geranial (19%) and neral (15%). Basil oil had effective DPPH •, ABTS •, H ₂O ₂, HO •, NO and NO ₂ scavenging effects. Basil oil significantly reduced NOX and iNOS mRNA expression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine macrophages at concentrations of 1-10 μg/mL. Basil oil had radical scavenging and anti-oxidant activities and could potentially be used as a safe and effective source of natural anti-oxidants in therapy against oxidative damage and stress associated with some inflammatory conditions.