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Almond Skin Polyphenol Extract Inhibits Inflammation and Promotes Lipolysis in Differentiated 3T3-L1 Adipocytes
- Huang, Wen-Chung, Chen, Chi-Yuan, Wu, Shu-Ju
- Journal of medicinal food 2017 v.20 no.2 pp. 103-109
- 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, AMP-activated protein kinase, adipocytes, adipogenesis, adipose tissue, almonds, antioxidant activity, chemokine CCL2, energy expenditure, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, free radical scavengers, inflammation, ligands, lipolysis, phosphorylation, polyphenols, risk reduction, secretion, transcription factors, triacylglycerol lipase, tumor necrosis factor-alpha
- Studies have shown that polyphenols reduce the risk of inflammation-related diseases and upregulates energy expenditure in adipose tissue. Here, we investigated the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory and antiobesity effects of almond skin polyphenol extract (ASP) in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The antioxidant effects of ASP were measured based on DPPH radical scavenging activity, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, and total phenolic content. Differentiated 3T3-L1 cells were treated with ASP. Subsequently, lipolysis proteins and transcription factors of adipogenesis were measured. The proinflammatory mediators monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and chemokine ligand 5 (CCL-5) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We found that ASP significantly promoted phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), increased activity of adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase, and inhibited adipogenesis-related transcription factors. In addition, ASP inhibited the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced cell inflammatory response via downregulation of MCP-1 and CCL-5 secretion. This study suggests that ASP regulates lipolysis through activation of AMPK, reduced adipogenesis, and suppresses proinflammatory cytokines in adipocytes.